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Heads of state for year

 


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1600

Africa

Empire of Ethiopia - Yaqob (1597-1603 and 1604-1606)
Kingdom of Kongo - Álvaro II, Manikongo (1587-1614)
Kingdom of Sennar - Unsa I (1591-1603/4)
Asia

Arakan - Mengradzagyi, King of Arakan (1593-1612)
Burma - Ngyaung Ram Meng, King of Burma (1599-1605)
China (Ming Dynasty) - Wanli Emperor of China (1573-1620)
Đại Việt - Lê Kính Tông (1600-1619)
Đàng Ngoài - Trịnh Tùng, Trịnh Lord (1570-1623)
Đàng Trong - Nguyễn Hoàng, Nguyễn Lord (1558-1613)
Japan (Sengoku period)
Monarch - Emperor Go-Yōzei (1586-1611)
de facto -
Council of Five Elders (1598-1600)
Tokugawa Ieyasu (1600-1603)
Khanate of Khiva - Haji Muhammad I (1558-1602)
Korea (Joseon Dynasty) - Seonjo (1567-1608)
Mughal Empire - Akbar (1556-1605)
Ryūkyū Kingdom - Shō Nei (1587-1620)
Europe

Crimean Khanate - Ghazi II Girai (1596-1608)
Kingdom of Denmark and Norway - Christian IV (1588-1648)
Kingdom of England and Ireland - Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
Kingdom of France - Henry IV (1589-1610)
Holy Roman Empire - Rudolf II (1576-1612)
Duchy of Bavaria - Maximilian I (1597-1648)
Kingdom of Bohemia - Rudolf II (1576-1611)
Electorate of Brandenburg - Joachim Frederick (1598-1608)
Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen - John Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (1596-1634)
Archbishopric of Cologne - Ernest of Bavaria (1583-1612)
Dutch Republic on the verge to independence
Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt - Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1596-1626)
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) - Maurice (1592-1627)
Bishopric of Lübeck - John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1586-1607)
Archbishopric of Mainz - Wolfgang von Dalberg (1582-1601)
Duchy of Mantua - Vincenzo I Gonzaga (1587-1612)
Duchy of Modena - Cesare d'Este (1597-1628)
Electoral Palatinate - Frederick IV (1583-1610)
Duchy of Parma - Ranuccio I Farnese (1592-1622)
Duchy of Savoy - Charles Emmanuel I (1580-1630)
Electorate of Saxony - Christian II (1591-1611)
Archbishopric of Trier - Lothar von Metternich (1599-1623)
Grand Duchy of Tuscany - Ferdinando I de' Medici (1587-1609)
Duchy of Württemberg - Frederick I (1593-1608)
Royal Hungary - Rudolf II (1576-1609)
Ireland - Elizabeth I, Queen of Ireland (1558-1603)
Moldavia - Prince of Moldavia:
Ieremia Movilă (first rule: 1595-May 1600)
Michael the Brave (May-September 1600)
Ieremia Movilă (second rule: September 1600-1606)
Kingdom of Navarre - Henry III (1572-1610)
Ottoman (Turkish) Empire - Mehmet III (1595-1603)
Papal States - Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605)
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Sigismund III Vasa (1587-1632)
Russia - Boris Godunov, Tsar of Russia (1598-1605)
Kingdom of Scotland - James VI (1567-1625)
Kingdom of Spain - Philip III (1598-1621)
Kingdom of Sweden - Duke Charles Albert, Viceroy of Sweden (1599-1611)
Principality of Transylvania - Michael the Brave (1599-1601)
United Provinces
Estates of Friesland, Groningen, Guelders, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland (1581-1795)
Stadtholder - Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Gelre, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht and Zeeland (1585-1625)
Grand Pensionary of Holland - Johan van Oldebarnevelt (1586-1619)
Republic of Venice - Marino Grimani, Doge of Venice (1595-1606)
Principality of Wallachia - Michael the Brave (1593-1601)
Middle East and North Africa

Sultanate of Morocco - Ahmad II (1578-1603)
Safavid Empire - Abbas I, Shah of Persia (1587-1629)

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1700

Africa

Dahomey - Akaba, King of Dahomey (1685-1708)
Ethiopia - Iyasu I, Emperor of Ethiopia, (1682-1706)
Kongo - João II, Manikongo of Kongo (1693-1717)
Nkore - Ntare IV Omugabe of Nkole, (c.1699-c.1727)
Asia

China (Qing Dynasty) - Kangxi, Emperor of China (1662-1722)
Japan -
Monarch - Higashiyama, Emperor of Japan (1687-1709)
Shogun (Tokugawa) - Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, Shogun of Japan (1680-1709)
Ryūkyū Kingdom - Shō Tei, King of Ryūkyū (1669-1709)
Korea (Joseon Dynasty) - Sukjong, King of Joseon (1674-1720)
Mughal Empire - Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor (1658-1707)
Maratha Empire -
Rajaram Chhatrapati, Chhatrapati (1689-1700)
Tarabai, Regent (1700-1708)
Sirmur - Mat Prakash, Raja of Sirmur (1684-1704)
Europe

Denmark-Norway -
Monarch - Frederick IV, King of Denmark (1699-1730)
Chancellor - Conrad, greve von Reventlow, Chancellor of Denmark (1699-1708)
England - William III, King of England (1689-1702)
France - Louis XIV, King of France (1643-1715)
Holy Roman Empire - Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1658-1705)
Aachen - Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1658-1705)
Aalen - Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1658-1705)
Anhalt-Bernburg - Prince Victor Amadeus (1656-1718)
Anhalt-Dessau - Prince Leopold I (1693-1747)
Anhalt-Dornburg - Prince John Louis I (1667-1704)
Baden-Baden - Ludwig Wilhelm, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1677-1707)
Baden-Durlach - Friedrich VII, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1677-1709)
Bavaria - Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (1679-1726)
Bohemia - Leopold I, King of Bohemia (1657-1705)
Brandenburg - Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, (1688-1713)
Cologne - Joseph Clemens of Bavaria, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne (1688-1723)
Hanover - Georg Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Elector of the Holy Roman Empire Prince Elector designate (1698-1708)
Hesse-Darmstadt - Ernst Ludwig, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1678-1739)
Hesse-Kassel - Karl, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1670-1730)
Mainz - Lothar Franz von Schönborn, Archbishop-Elector of Mainz (1695-1729)
Palatinate - John William II, Elector Palatine (1690-1716)
Saxony - Frederick Augustus I, Elector of Saxony (1694-1733)
Trier - Johann Hugo von Orsbeck, Archbishop-Elector of Trier (1676-1711)
Württemberg - Eberhard Ludwig, Duke of Württemberg (1677-1733)
Hungary - Leopold I, King of Hungary (1657-1705)
Ireland - William III, King of Ireland (1689-1702)
Mantua - Carlo IV Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua (1665-1708)
Modena - Rinaldo III d'Este, Duke of Modena (1694-1737)
Naples -
Charles V, King of Naples (1665-1700)
Philip IV, King of Naples (1700-1707)
Norway - Frederick IV, King of Norway (1699-1730)
Papal States -
Pope Innocent XII, Bishop of Rome (1691-1700)
Pope Clement XI, Bishop of Rome (1700-1721)
Parma - Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma (1694-1727)
Ottoman ( Turkish ) Empire
Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan (1695-1703)
Grand Vizier - Hüseyin Köprülü, Ottoman Grand Vizier (1697-1702)
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Augustus II, King of Poland (1697-1704, 1709-1733)
Portugal - Pedro II, King of Portugal (1667-1706)
Russia - Peter I, Tsar of Russia (1682-1725)
Savoy - Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy (1675-1730)
Scotland - William II, King of Scotland (1689-1702)
Sicily -
Charles III, King of Sicily (1665-1700)
Philip IV, King of Sicily (1700-1707)
Spain -
Charles II, King of Spain (1665-1700)
Philip V, King of Spain (1700-1724, 1724-1746)
Sweden -
Monarch - Charles XII, King of Sweden (1697-1718)
Prime Minister - Bengt Oxenstierna, President of the Privy Council Chancellery (1680-1702)
Swiss Confederation
Appenzell -
Bartholomäus Sturzenegger, Landammänner of Appenzell (1698-1700)
Laurenz Tanner I, Landammänner of Appenzell (1700-1701)
Tuscany - Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1670-1723)
United Provinces
Estates of Friesland, Groningen, Guelders, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland (1581-1795)
Stadtholder - King William III of England, Stadtholder of Guelders, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht and Zeeland (1672-1702)
Holland - Grand Pensionary Anthonie Heinsius of Holland (1689-1720)
Venice
Silvestro Valiero, Doge of Venice (1694-1700)
Alvise II Mocenigo, Doge of Venice (1700-1709)
Middle East and North Africa

Morocco - Ismail Ibn Sharif, Sultan of Morocco (1684-1727)
Safavid Empire - Sultan Husayn, Shah (1694-1722)

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1800

Africa

Ashanti Confederacy - Osei Kwame Panyin, Asantehene (1777-1803)
Buganda - Semakokiro, King of Buganda (1771-1814)
Bunyoro - Nyamutukura Kyebambe III, Omukama of Bunyoro (1786-1835)
Burundi - Ntare IV Rugamba, King of Burundi (1796-1852)
Dahomey - Adandozan, King of Dahomey (1797-1818)
Ethiopia -
Demetros, Emperor of Ethiopia (1799-1800)
Tekle Giyorgis I, Emperor of Ethiopia (fifth reign, 1800)
Demetros, Emperor of Ethiopia (restored, 1800-1801)
Ndzuwani - Alawi bin Husain, Sultan of Ndzuwani (1796-1816)
Ouaddai - Muhammad Salih Derret ibn Jawda, King of Ouaddai (1795-1803)
Rwanda - Yuhi III, Mwami of Rwanda (1797-1830)
Wolof Empire -
Mba Kompass, Emperor (1763-1800)
Mba Buri-Nyabu, Emperor (1800-1818)
Zulu - Senzangakona, King of the Zulu (1781-1816)
Americas

Muskogee - William Augustus Bowles, Director General of Muskogee (1799-1803)
United States - John Adams, President of the United States (1797-1801)
Asia

Afghanistan - Zaman Shah, King of Afghanistan (1793-1801)
China (Qing Dynasty) - Jiaqing, Emperor of China (1796-1820)
Japan
Monarch - Kokaku, Emperor of Japan (1780-1817)
Shogun (Tokugawa) - Tokugawa Ienari, Shogun of Japan (1786-1837)
Ryūkyū Kingdom - Shō On, King of Ryūkyū (1796-1802)
Kokand - 'Alim Khan, Khan of Kokand (1800-1809)
Korea (Joseon Dynasty) -
Jeongjo, King of Joseon (1776-1800)
Sunjo, King of Joseon (1800-1834)
Viet Nam (Tây Sơn Dynasty) - Nguyễn Quang Toản, Emperor of Vietnam (1792-1802)
Europe

Andorra - Francesc Antoni de la Dueña y Cisneros, Bishop of Urgell (1797-1816)
Batavian Republic - Uitvoerend Bewind of the Batavian Republic (1798-1801)
Denmark-Norway
Monarch - Christian VII, King of Denmark (1766-1808)
Prime Minister - Christian Gunther, Minister of State of Denmark (1797-1810)
France - Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul (1799-1804)
Great Britain -
Monarch - George III, King of Great Britain (1760-1820)
Prime Minister - William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of Great Britain (1783-1801)
Helvetic Republic -
Executive Directory (1798-January 1800)
Provisional Executive Power (January 1800)
Provisional Executive Commission (January-August 1800)
Provisional Executive Commission (August 1800-1801)
Holy Roman Empire - Franz II, Holy Roman Emperor (1792-1806)
Anhalt-Bernburg - Alexius, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (1796-1834)
Anhalt-Dessau - Leopold III, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1751-1817)
Anhalt-Köthen - Augustus Christian Frederick, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (1789-1812)
Baden - Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden (1738-1811)
Bavaria - Maximilian IV Joseph, Elector of Bavaria (1799-1825)
Bohemia - Francis I, King of Bohemia (1792-1835)
Brandenburg - Frederick William III, Elector of Brandenburg (1797-1840)
Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel - Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1780-1806)
Cologne - Maximilian Franz of Austria, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne (1784-1801)
Hanover - George III, Elector of Hanover (1760-1820)
Hesse-Darmstadt - Louis X, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1790-1830)
Hesse-Kassel - William IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1785-1821)
Holstein-Oldenburg -
Duke - William, Duke of Holstein-Oldenburg (1785-1823)
Regent - Peter of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince-Regent of Holstein-Oldenburg (1785-1823)
Mainz - Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal, Archbishop-Elector of Mainz (1774-1802)
Mecklenburg-Schwerin - Frederick Francis I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1785-1837)
Mecklenburg-Strelitz - Charles II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1794-1816)
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld -
Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1764-1800)
Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1800-1806)
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg - Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1772-1804)
Saxe-Hildburghausen - Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1780-1826)
Saxe-Meiningen - George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (1763-1803)
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach - Charles Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1758-1828)
Saxony - Frederick Augustus III, Elector of Saxony (1763-1827)
Trier - Clemens Wenzel of Saxony, Archbishop-Elector of Trier (1768-1802)
Württemberg - Frederick II, Duke of Württemberg (1797-1816)
Hungary - Francis I (1792-1835)
Ireland - George III, King of Ireland (1760-1820)
Naples - Ferdinand IV, King of Naples (1759-1806)
Ottoman (Turkish) Empire
Monarch - Selim III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789-1807)
Grand Vizier - Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier (1798-1805)
Papal States - Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)
Parma - Ferdinand (1765-1802)
Portugal -
Queen - Maria I, Queen of Portugal (1777-1816)
Regent - John, Prince of Brazil, Prince-Regent of Portugal (1799-1816)
Prussia - Frederick William III, King of Prussia (1797-1840)
Russia - Paul I, Tsar of Russia (1796-1801)
Sardinia - Charles Emmanuel IV, King of Sardinia (1796-1802)
Sicily - Ferdinand III, King of Sicily (1759-1825)
Spain - Charles IV, King of Spain (1788-1808)
Sweden - Gustav IV Adolf, King of Sweden (1792-1809)
Tuscany - Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1790-1801)
Middle East and North Africa

Abu Dhabi - Shakhbut bin Dhiyab, Shaikh of Abu Dhabi (1793-1816)
Morocco - Slimane, Sultan of Morocco (1792-1822)
Persia - Fath Ali Shah, Shah of Persia (1797-1834)
Oceania

Tahiti - Pomare I, King of Tahiti (1791-1803)

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Update 20-04-14

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